A review of neurohormone GPCRs present in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and the honey bee Apis mellifera. All these three types of receptors were identified in A. craccivora and involved a total of 6 sequences (B1–B6) (Figure 4). Audsley N, McIntosh C, Phillips JE. (2013) 102:345–54. Type. 1995), while Ropalosiphum maidis (Fitch), - A. gos This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Gen Comp Endocrinol. During the spring season on the hibiscus plants in our backyard, we find this aphid. For most of the measured neuropeptide-encoding genes, the expression abundance showed a trend of decreasing first and then increasing during development, i.e., the expression level was significantly downregulated at the 2nd and 3rd instar stages (Figure 5). Nässel DR, Larhammar D. Neuropeptides and peptide hormones. (2008) 38:740–8. (2003) 33:795–801. After the raw sequencing reads were filtered to remove adaptors, low-quality sequences and reads with N content <5%, de novo assembly were performed using Trinity software with the default parameters (18). ... USDA Identification Technology Program, and USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Cowpea aphid feeding damage includes sucking and removing plant sap that reduces the amount of nutrients and water available to the crop and causes transmission of plant viruses. The A. craccivora capability (CAPA) gene encodes a CAPA-pvk (periviscerokinin) peptide and a CAPA-pk (pyrokinin) peptide with the conserved characteristic motif, -PRVamide, and -PRLamide, respectively. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2011.11.004, 49. The qRT-PCR program was set as follows: 95°C for 3 min; 40 cycles of 95°C for 10 s and 58°C for 30 s; and followed by a melting cycle (from 60 to 95°C with an increase of 0.5°C per cycle). (2020) 743:144605. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2020.144605, 9. Hewes RS, Taghert PH. We especially thank the UK Forestry Commission Bedgebury Pinetum for their kind assistance, and permission to sample. Ofuya (1997/1998) reviews chemical, cultural, physical and biological methods, and use of plant resistance for Aphis craccivora control in cowpea, and discusses prospects for integrated pest management. If both neuropeptide and its receptor are truly absent, it is more likely that this signaling system is lacking as a whole based on neuropeptide-receptor co-evolution in this aphid species. During the process of neuropeptide production, a larger inactive neuropeptide precursor is first synthesized. Therefore, it is speculated that -WX7Wamide may be a special AstB subtype that is prevalent in hemipteran insects. Baggerman G, Cerstiaens A, De Loof A, Schoofs L. Peptidomics of the larval Drosophila melanogaster central nervous system. Hummon AB, Richmond TA, Verleyen P, Baggerman G, Huybrechts J, Ewing MA, et al. Search for more papers by this author. Three restriction enzymes Rsa I, AluI and Hinf1 produced patterns that allowed unambiguous identification of the species except Aphis craccivora and Aphis fabae. (2007) 13:857–71. Curr Biol. And then the encoded protein sequences were aligned to the Nr database using NCBI's Blastp program (https://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi). (1971) examined the ecology of the cowpea aphid and SCSV in five pastures which were sown with different combinations of pasture legumes. Biochem Bioph Res Commun. The synthesis and secretion of different ILPs in the same insect species exhibits different temporal and spatial pattern, and their functions are also different (79). Aphids were found to spend the dry season on two common Euphorbia weeds and on volunteer groundnuts. Differences in the high-temperature tolerance of Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on cotton and soybean: implications for ecological niche switching among hosts. (2011) 20:29–44. Science. Thus, such genes were not included in the results (Figures 5, 6). Crop Prot. To determine the transcriptional expression levels of neuropeptides and their GPCRs at different life stages of A. craccivora, 20–60 aphids from each instar were collected separately for qRT-PCR analysis. PLoS ONE. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Journal Article  Metadata Show full item record. Data are presented as the mean ± SD. Aphis craccivora is a vector of several viruses including broad bean mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus and groundnut rosette virus. Aikins MJ, Schooley DA, Begum K, Detheux M, Beeman RW, Park Y. Vasopressin-like peptide and its receptor function in an indirect diuretic signaling pathway in the red flour beetle. The predicted A. craccivora SIFa sequence (FRKPPFNGSIFamide) is consistent with that of A. pisum and M. persicae, but lacks an amino acid residue at the N-terminus compared to the classical motif. Sterkel M, Urlaub H, Rivera-Pomar R, Ons S. Functional proteomics of neuropeptidome dynamics during the feeding process of Rhodnius prolixus. The Insulin Signalling Pathway is Involved in Regulating Wing Polyphenism of Pea Aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris), Doctoral dissertation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling(China). Aphis loti which has the siphunculi 0.8-1.5 times the length of the cauda). Introduction. Many North American and a few southern European Aphis craccivora populations have a reduced sclerotic shield. Aphis craccivora colony was maintained on seedlings of fava bean in a growth chamber at 23°C with a photoperiod of 12: 12 (L: D) and 50% relative humidity. It is not very common in cool temperate countries, but can be abundant in warm-temperate and tropical regions. Based on RNA-seq technology, we identified a large number of genes encoding neuropeptides and their GPCRs from A. craccivora in this study. Common names. A36 has an N-terminus containing 7 LDLa repeats and 8 LRR motifs, consistent with the typical characteristics of a type C LGR. In Nigeria Ofuya (1995) looked at the abundance of coccinellid predators in some varieties of cowpea following artificial aphid infestation. doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2010.05.005, 27. Biological characters and sequence analysis of coat protein gene of Chinese strains of peanut stripe virus (PStV). Some mature neuropeptide sequences are identical in different aphids, such as short neuropeptide F (sNPF) and SIFamide (SIFa) of A. craccivora, A. pisum, and Myzus persicae. Many species of aphids are important agricultural and forestry pests. Aphis craccivora a polyphagous aphid species with a preference for Fabaceae. The ILPs play a main role in systematically regulating the growth of the body in response to nutritional conditions (75). doi: 10.1021/bi00185a031, 71. For this reason, winged and wingless morphs of the aphids were collected separately from the 3rd, the 4th instar nymphs and adults. Genome Res. (2008) 29:142–65. Cell Tissue Res. Even the sequences of mature peptides of DH31 and DH44 that are up to tens of amino acids are identical in A. craccivora and A. pisum (Supplementary Material 2). Isolation of a neuropeptide from locust corpus cardiacum which influences ileal transport. (2010) 40:581–91. Only the transcript encoding ITPL was found in the A. craccivora transcriptome, whereas the ITP-encoding transcript was not. Peptides. Categories. McBrayer Z, Ono H, Shimell MJ, Parvy JP, Beckstead RB, Warren JT, et al. Endocrinol. Among them, more than 60 mature peptides could be biologically active. doi: 10.1016/S0960-9822(01)00068-9, 77. (2016) 81:163–7. Table 2. Tanaka Y, Suetsugu Y, Yamamoto K, Noda H, Shinoda T. Transcriptome analysis of neuropeptides and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) for neuropeptides in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. (2006) 80:1–19. Fouad EA, Abou-Yousef HM, Abdallah IS, Kandil MA. Prog Neurobiol. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2007.11.003, 70. According to the structure characteristics, LGRs are divided into type A, type B, and type C. The main differences among the 3 types are the number of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), the presence or absence of a low density lipoprotein receptor-like cysteine-rich (LDLa) motif, and type-specific hinge region (48, 49). 1984. (1999) 21:55–9, 64. The cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, is one of the most serious pests of legumes, such as faba bean, cowpea and pea [3]. Neuropeptides and their precursors in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. Berlin: Springer Spektrum (2013). Miller, AphID. B-family GPCRs are a small class of receptors that differ structurally and functionally from other families. Cyclization of N-terminal glutamine/glutamic acid residue and amidation of the C-terminal glycine residue were predicted based on homology to the reported invertebrate neuropeptides. Figure 1. Kataoka H, Nagasawa H, Isogai A, Ishizaki H, Suzuki A. Prothoracicotropic hormone of the silkworm, Bombyx mori: amino acid sequence and dimeric structure. Four incomplete sequences were not included; cleavage sites were not predicted in the NPLP3 precursor. J Cell Biol. The latter were an important source of groundnut rosette virus and the vector. (2010) 20:969–78. They reproduce both sexually and asexually (parthenogenesis) to produce live young. In addition, there is an orphan receptor, A36, clustered into the C2 LGR subfamily (Figure 3). The names of the repository/repositories and accession number(s) can be found in the article/Supplementary Material. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2013.07.027, 7. Worldwide in distribution, but particularly common in warm temperate and tropical regions. Several neuropeptide genes, such as sNPF, SIFa, AstC, AstCC, and Proc, even encode identical mature active peptides in different species of aphids. Zels S, Dillen S, Crabbé K, Spit J, Nachman RJ, Broeck JV. In summary, the neuropeptide signaling systems in aphids are highly conserved and provide potential insecticide targets for the control of aphids. Prog Neurobiol. Bulletin of the National Research Centre (Cairo), 30(4):391-403. For others, the neuropeptide was not found or is lacking, but its presumed GPCR is present (e.g., PDF, RYa, CNMa, etc.). In Malawi Farrell (1976) looked at the effect of plant spacing on the population dynamics of Aphis craccivora on groundnuts. (2013) describes the search for new sources of resistance given the recent breakdown of resistance in Africa. The cDNA template was synthesized using a PrimeScript™ II 1st Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Takara, Dalian, China) The reaction procedure was as follows: pre-denaturation at 94°C for 3 min; 37 cycles of denaturation at 94°C for 30 s, annealing at 56°C for 30 s, and elongation at 72°C for 1 min; and a final elongation at 72°C for 5 min. Caers J, Verlinden H, Zels S, Vandersmissen HP, Vuerinckx K, Schoofs L. More than two decades of research on insect neuropeptide GPCRs: an overview. Three plant spacings (30 cm, 7.5 cm and 2.5 cm) within rows 90 cm apart, were used in three field trials. In contrast to ITPs and ILPs, an NPLP3 ortholog is present in A. craccivora but not in A. pisum. San Diego, CA: Academic Press (2012). ... Aphis craccivora. The effect of spacing on aphid numbers was attributed to the effect of host-plant condition on the potential rate of increase. The rate of plant growth was relatively depressed in 2.5 cm spacing, particularly after 40 days. Identification and expression profiling of neuropeptides and neuropeptide receptor genes in Atrijuglans hetaohei. doi: 10.1016/S0965-1748(03)00078-X, 72. Synonym. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M206257200, 66. Leucine-rich repeat-containing GPCRs (LGRs) are a special class of neuropeptide/protein hormone receptors in A-family GPCRs. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000313, 6. doi: 10.1101/gr.169901, 22. Bulletin of the National Research Centre (Cairo), 30(4):391-403. Tokunaga & Suzuki (2008)compared colony growth and dispersal of the ant-tended Aphis craccivora and the non-ant-tended Acyrthosiphon pisum in the absence of predators and ants. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2020.00640/full#supplementary-material, 1. Dorsum of abdomen pale, Cauda and siphunculi both dark: Spiraea aphid, Aphis spiraecola Patch: 3. (2012) 336:582–5. Aphis craccivora is a small species of aphid. doi: 10.1093/nar/gku1221, 37. Transmission failures and infection costs likely limit the spread of protective Hamiltonella defensa in Aphis craccivora. (2010) 5:e9490. Alert. Terhzaz S, Rosay P, Goodwin SF, Veenstra JA. Harmar AJ. Paired-end sequencing was performed using an Illumina HiSeqTM 2,500 by Gene Denovo Biotechnology Co. (Guangzhou, China). In many of these crops there is no natural genetic resistance to this sap-sucking insect or resistance genes have been overcome by newly emerged CPA biotypes. The maximum-likelihood tree was constructed using FastTree software with local support values calculated based on the Shimodaira-Hasegawa (SH) test. (2015) 67:27–37. Aphis craccivora prefers plants in the Fabaceae (beans, peas and groundnuts), but it is highly polyphagous and has been found on many plant species. Micrograph of clarified mounted aptera (first image) courtesy PaDIL. In general, this pest causes severe damage to beans in warm weather, especially in medium-rainfall areas of the region. It is one of the commonest aphid species in the tropics. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2009.08.020, 69. (2016) 364:499–512. Sabater-Muñoz B, Legeai F, Rispe C, Bonhomme J, Dearden P, Dossat C, et al. Received: 01 May 2020; Accepted: 06 August 2020; Published: 17 September 2020. 17. Resistance monitoring and enzyme activity in three field populations of cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora) from Egypt. 1995; Inoue et al. (2008) 155:14–21. In A. pisum, ILP5 has attracted the attention of researchers due to its abundant expression. Gutierrez et al. Fron Physiol. (2002) 18:769–70. Winged forms of the brown citrus aphid typically develop when new growth is no longer available on the tree so they can disperse. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD test. Aphis craccivora on the other hand lacks such morphological and behavioural traits, because increasing colony size without dispersal is likely to be advantageous for ant attraction. 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