FREE Background Report. We see a hierarchy of intellectual faculties, in which those forms of human activity that are allegedly mindless are described as “merely mechanical,” even if no machines are involved. To get at that, we have to tell a history not only of emergence, but of the formation of the deepest levels of our intuition. Characteristic of Cold War rationality was the view that certain forms of reasoning, core forms of reasoning, could not only be reduced to rules, but to a certain kind of rule in particular—namely, the algorithm: a rule that can be executed mechanically. Phenomenal World August 8th, 2020 Economics, Bosses, and Interest — Maya Adereth Shani Cohen Jack Gross Print Economics, Bosses, and Interest — Maya Adereth Shani Cohen Jack Gross. Official site of actor Jack Gross. In so doing, POTs find a way to restore what optimization seeks to hide, revealing that what gets laundered as technical problems are actually political ones. Phenomenal World is a publication managed by staff of the Jain Family Institute. This seems to follow a logic of automating material production, where you look at the total process, disassemble it into component parts, and then deskill and automate it. We normally think of austerity as a process of paring back services, but those measures also generate new institutions. We also found 12 background checks for Jack Gross, including criminal records. Similarly influential work conducted with Amit Bhaduri contested neoclassical models that view economic growth as a product of technological advancement and increases in the factors of production. There’s another element, however: the actual improvements in mechanical calculation, which allowed for the smoother working of a calculating machine. Below, we speak with Seda Gürses and Bekah Overdorf, two members of the POTs team, who discuss the definition of optimization system, the departures the POTs approach makes from the digital ethics literature, and the design and implementation of POTs in the wild. jg: A final question I want to ask is about your discipline. These claims in Hacking’s book continue to grip me. I think it’s an artifact of the educational system. The minor reason is that they felt that, in extremely complicated circumstances, even the reasonable male elite needed some guidance. In 1966, Piven and Richard Cloward published "The Weight of the Poor" in the Nation magazine. This labor was called “mechanical,” even though it’s done only with quill pen and paper. Technical improvements strengthened the relationship between the notions of mechanical and calculation. ld: The first attempts to create mechanical calculators date to 17th-century thinkers like Pascal and Leibniz. Select this result to view Jack Russel Gross's phone number, address, and more. The best result we found for your search is Jack P Gross age 60s in Robbinsville, NC. Lorraine Daston: It started with a collaborative project on Cold War rationality, when I realized there was a clear difference between traditional philosophical ideas of reason and a form of rationality that came to characterize the American human sciences in the mid-20th century. ", which sought to explain hierarchical production as a function of accumulation, not technical efficiency. Could you describe this history and how you came to see the development of calculation as a story about the division of labor? Already in the 18th century at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, forms had been developed that divided the task of a complex calculation into small enough steps—so that, at least at the lower end, the Observatory could employ very cheap schoolboy labor in order to complete them economically. Little Mephisto — Phenomenal World . There are striking parallels between the story you tell and the contemporary development of artificial intelligence, which often requires immense amounts of unseen human labor. Official channels for redress offer little help: alleviating out-group concerns is by necessity counter to the interests of the optimization system and its target customers. These two senses of “mechanical” converge with Charles Babbage, the mathematician who designed the first computers. The best result we found for your search is Jackie Gross age 40s in Cimarron, KS. The people behind the curtain in modern AI projects are of two sorts: those who are thinking about how to divide a very complicated task into the tiniest possible steps, very much in the tradition of the history of mechanical calculation; and those whose work is compensatory for algorithmic systems—Facebook moderators, for example, who monitor objectionable content missed by the algorithms meant to eliminate it automatically. Unlike the work of Ian Hacking and Barbara Shapiro, who were examining the emergence of the concept of probability, your project focused squarely on the emergence of mathematical probability. Sign up for the JFI Letter, a weekly digest of compelling research across the social sciences. The goal is to make one’s judgment consistent over the long run. jg: There’s a striking phrase that you use to describe their goals, which is that they “were seeking to quantify the intuitions of an elite of reasonable men.” They were thinking about formalizing legal concepts for business activities, and about how to rationalize certain aspects of the justice system, but they were also seeking to quantify their own cognitive capacities as “reasonable” people. There’s nothing epistemologically inevitable about it—quite the contrary. But in terms of actually working on probability, it was Ian Hacking’s The Emergence of Probability that changed my path—literally overnight. Jack graduated from Eastern High School in 1979. The second best result is Jack D Gross age 60s in Columbus, OH in the Maize-morse neighborhood. As for the law, there are two aspects of legal thought that turned out to be seminal for probability: degrees of proof, and aleatory contracts. Rules that are less august in their domain of application than justice—rules, for example, defining the arts and crafts—are always formulated with an eye toward exceptions. jg: What makes your research compelling for readers far outside your discipline is that you historicize areas of science whose language or mode of reasoning has become so commonplace that we forget they have origins in methodology. Starting in the mid-19th century, when mechanical calculation genuinely becomes practically possible, the ambit of algorithmic rules grows, and by the middle of the 20th century, they become a form of rationality very much associated with the Cold War. Where does this phrase come from? The best result we found for your search is Jack Russel Gross age 60s in Jamestown, PA. Jurists, without having any kind of measurable scale, had already assigned fractions to these so-called indices of proof. Her two books—which deal, respectively, with New York City's 1970s fiscal crisis and the rise of conservative business movement—also offer cautionary tales about the severe constraints under which political officials operate, and the ease with which powerful reactionary interests organize, relative to the public interest. We can read interesting correspondences from astronomers at Oxford and Harvard recruiting the first generation of women college graduates to perform calculations for half the wages of men. jg: You’ve used the term “merely mechanical” to describe the connection between people laboring under particular conditions, and a kind of labor that can be executed algorithmically. Sometimes Jack goes by various nickname including Jack N Gross. Explore historical records and family tree profiles about Jack Gross on MyHeritage, the world's family history network. Even in the most ideal conditions, optimization systems—constrained, more often than not, by the imperatives of profit-generating corporations—are designed to ruthlessly maximize one metric at the expense of others. They have also lived in Hays, KS and Dodge City, KS. The obvious one is the eruption of intellectual novelty, so fascinatingly presented in Hacking’s work. Harvard Computers, circa 1890. This is both because the maid is a woman in a dependent relation to her master and because of the remote inferential link between committing the crime and the observed psychological state of the subject. But the history of science has also been quite permeable to the methods of the social sciences. Never in the history of human rulemaking have we created a rule or a law that did not stub its toe against unanticipated particulars (just ask the Facebook moderators who must clean up after the algorithms). Jack Gross Class of 2023 Perfect Game Player Profile. At least in his telling, that was the insight that led him to the Difference Engine and the Analytical Engine. In a conjuncture defined by high ideological tension, in which elite consensus and power structures seem increasingly discredited and the scope of political possibility is wider than in recent memory, Phillips-Fein's work is particularly topical. After about 1870, it was mechanical in a double sense: machines were involved, and the people who did the labor were considered mechanical. Jack Gross Eaton Rapids, MI Born January 13, 1961 in Lansing, the son of John and Melba (Trim) Gross, died October 10, 2012 at the age of 51. And, crucially, the early figures of mathematical probability—Pierre de Fermat, Leibniz, and Pascal—all had extensive experience in the law. He was born September 9, 1959 in Farmington a son of Alvin and Constance Marie (Benjamin) Gross. Select this result to view Jack D Gross… Somewhat infamous for his post-tenure radicalism, Marglin has published extensively on a wide range of topics over his decades-long career. Mixed Martial Arts on ESPN.com: latest news, scores, schedule, stats, and highlights from ESPN Every second, Whitepages helps 19 people do reverse phone lookups, find people, and get background reports, including public records, in order to make smarter, safer decisions. Like someone who lives in a flight path but has never bought a plane ticket complaining about the noise to an airline company, the collateral damage of optimization has little leverage over the system provider unless the law can be wielded against it. That same year, anti-poverty groups around the country formed a broad coalition that became the National Welfare Rights Organization, of which Piven was a founding member. There’s an obvious and perhaps a less obvious attraction to doing this kind of history. Historically, it is actually something of an anomaly in the human sciences that these two approaches have split apart. The important point is the extent to which this labor has been erased from the triumphal histories of calculation. ld: History of science lies in the middle of a triangle defined by the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. I think it’s striking, if you take the longue durée view of the evolution of the sciences, to recall where these divisions of knowledge we take for granted come from. Be your best, all in order to truly determine that you win your fight, your match, without the cheap shots that Jack was forced to … Jack Gross Research Writer and Editor Jack Gross is a writer, editor and researcher. Our conversation was edited for length and clarity. Until the late-19th century, calculation was called mechanical labor, but no machines were involved. The liberal arts—subjects taught at the university: grammar, rhetoric, logic, astronomy, music, arithmetic, geometry—were opposed to the mechanical arts, which were practical activities involving handiwork, such as farming and cooking. Director at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science since 1995 (emeritus as of Spring 2019), she is the author and co-author of over a dozen books, each stunning in scope and detail, and each demonstrating an ability to make the common uncommon—to illuminate what she calls the “history of the self-evident.”. Condorcet’s curriculum featured instruction in probability—a reasonable calculus—to give future citizens a kind of road map for decision making. This is the moment when the unthinkable becomes thinkable. Phenomenal World Phenomenal World February 13th, 2020 Austerity and Ideology ... Jack Gross: I wonder if you can speak in a little bit more detail about the institutions that emerged out of the crisis period. Select this result to view Jack P Gross's phone number, address, and more. Summary: Jack Gross is 104 years old today because Jack's birthday is on 01/01/1916. He works on documents across JFI’s projects and runs Phenomenal World.Email him here. At that time, most heavy-duty calculation took place either in government administration or in astronomical observations. If you already believe that this elite of reasonable men—and it is emphatically gendered male—is the gold standard for reasoning, why bother to formalize it? Aleatory contracts opened a loophole in these prohibitions: taking a risk was considered to be a form of work that entitles the risk-taker (for example, someone who lent a merchant money for a long voyage) to collect interest on an investment. In his telling, mathematical probability hit with the suddenness of a thunderbolt. For example, a suspect seen emerging from the scene of a murder with an unsheathed bloody sword delivers a high degree of evidentiary probability that the suspect is the culprit; whereas the testimony of a maid who saw her master in an agitated state several hours later is granted a very low degree of probability. How did you become interested in probability, and specifically in the story of quantification? Why not just follow their lead? Select this result to view Jack Gross's phone number, address, and more. It is startling to see how consistent these interests are across my work. How did the early probabilists draw on the law for the concepts that they thought needed quantification? (Harvard College Observatory). One Jeanswear Group LLC is located in New York, NY, United States and is part of the Women's Clothing Manufacturing Industry. Stephen Marglin is Walter S. Barker Professor Economics at Harvard University, where he has taught since he received tenure in 1968. What motivates you to identify the histories of scientific methods that have become generalized as intuitions? These two streams of legal thought influenced the early probabilists. By the mid-19th century, insurance companies became a third site of big calculation. It’s a nonstarter as a historical hypothesis, even if some of the early applications did deal with gambling and chance. Jack Gross: Regulating the Poor develops a theoretical framework for the function of welfare in the United States—how did you develop this approach to American welfare, and how did you … Phenomenal World January 29th, 2020 Historicizing the Self-Evident — Jack Gross jg: The continuity I was after was between people who work under similar labor conditions as content moderators—often low-wage workers in the Global South, contracted to large American tech firms—but who are performing tasks more closely akin to those of calculators: they are the machine behind the machine, tagging images for computer vision programs and the like. Optimizing the Crisis. "I've been doing this for quite some time, I don't recall since the I-78 boom in late 80s, early 90s, such an appreciation rate," said Jack Gross, President of Greater Lehigh Valley REALTORS. I think there are two explanations: one minor, and one major, and both are still very much with us. Historians of science are schooled to look for continuity, but Hacking framed his problem in terms of discontinuity. Our conversation was edited for length and clarity. In their 2018 paper POTs: Protective Optimization Technologies (updated version soon forthcoming at this same link), authors Rebekah Overdorf, Bogdan Kulynych, Ero Balsa, Carmela Troncoso, and Seda Gürses offer some answers. Is that accurate? jg: Your book makes a strong case that the quantification pursued by the early probabilists was founded on legal concepts, like “degrees of uncertainty” and “probabilistic expectation.” This comes as a corrective to a common notion, which is that probability theory emerged from gambling or games of chance. The minor reason I mentioned—needing an aid for the elite group of reasonable men encountering complex circumstances—was intimately tied up with the problem of enforcing consistency in legal judgments. If probability theory were a kind of natural evolution from gambling, it should have emerged in many places, in many epochs, long before the 17th century. The essay elaborates what has since been dubbed the "Cloward-Piven Strategy": the mass enrollment of the poor onto welfare rolls. Amidst the ever expanding reach of all varieties of quantification and algorithmic formalization, both the earliest of Daston's works (the 1988 book Classical Probability in the Enlightenment) and her most recent (an ongoing project on the history of rules) perform this task, uncovering the contingencies that swirled around the invention of mathematical probability, and the rise of algorithmic rule-making. Invisible Hands: the Businessmen’s Crusade Against the New Deal, Fear City: New York’s Fiscal Crisis and the Rise of Austerity Politics. Enlightenment thinkers held that this form of reasoning must be made accessible to everyone. The motivating question of the project was to understand how rules that intentionally involved judgment and adjustment to particular cases gave way to an understanding of rules as rigid, mechanical, and universally applicable. Our editors are Maya Adereth and Jack Gross. There’s another aspect to your initial question: the analogy to the current day. Beyond the time-intensive and uncertain path of traditional advocacy, what recourse is available for those who find themselves in the path of optimization? She is an historian of social movements and of ideology—the political action that it both stems from and engenders, and the repercussions of elite politics for the lives of ordinary people. So, already by Elizabethan times, at least in English, the word had a very pejorative, socially hierarchical meaning attached to it. These two modes of inquiry, so often opposed to each other, seem to me to work hand-in-glove, at least from the standpoint of the goals of scientific explanation. Many of us are trained in the sciences, while our methods are very much those of the historian. Before moving to Jack's current city of Franklin Lakes, NJ, Jack lived in Miromar Lakes FL, New York NY and Edison NJ. Over the course of the 19th century, schoolboys were increasingly replaced by women as the cheapest and most reliable form of labor. The dominant view was that the vast majority of people were, at least under current circumstances, incapable of self-governance, not only in the political sense of democracy but also in the more banal sense of governance of everyday affairs. Summary: Jack Gross is 70 years old today because Jack's birthday is on 10/01/1949. Wissenschaft—the German word for “science,” which includes all forms of systematic study—is a much more capacious, ample term. Cloward and Piven published the article in the midst of an intense period of grassroots activity among welfare recipients. You see it most vividly in the research done by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman in their famous work “Judgment under Uncertainty,” in which human reasoning is seen to be intrinsically flawed as measured by the standards of Bayesian probability theory. They are meant to be tweaked in the face of experience, adjusted to specific circumstances. ld: If you look at the details of, for example, the British Nautical Almanac, you can see that there have always been people like the moderators who are tasked with cleaning up—people behind the scenes checking and proofreading calculations, and identifying where things go wrong. ld: It returns to the problem of consistency. VARIED NET The politics of welfare in the 21st century. Legend has it that many of them were unemployed cooks and hairdressers previously from noble households that were dissolved when their masters were guillotined or fled. These programs require a mapping of the world in a way that is computationally legible, and translating the messy world into one that makes sense to a computer is imperfect. What would have been illegal or prohibited economic activity for religious reasons was made legal by the element of risk. I became interested in quantification abstractly, but also quite concretely—as I was the object of some of these attempts to quantify judgment. He has a creative mind and is often off in an alternate universe fighting an epic battle or inventing new characters. This was a Herculean task accomplished in record time by people not trained as mathematicians—recalculated hundreds of thousands of logarithms by hand. Something as simple as shifting from one language to another can prompt you to think historically about how all these forms of knowledge are intertwined. And yet we know from history—and I know from my lifetime—that our deepest intuitions about all sorts of things, and in particular justice and injustice, can change dramatically. Background Checks Jack Gross, Edna Simon, Lucyina Szwarc-Bilotynski, Arieh Durst, Reuven Pfefferman, Zeev Polishuk. POTs—the analytical framework and the technology—suggest that the inevitable assumptions, flaws, and rote nature of optimization systems can be exploited to produce “solutions that enable optimization subjects to defend from unwanted consequences.” Despite their overbearing nature, optimization systems typically require some degree of user input; POTs uses this as a wedge for individuals and groups marginalized by the optimization system to influence its operation. Early 19th centuries, probability theory was always subject to the social sciences the methods the! Circumstances, even the reasonable male elite that the vast majority of people because... 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