While Laura Mulvey's paper has a particular place in the feminist film theory, it is important to note that her ideas regarding ways of watching the cinema (from the voyeuristic element to the feelings of identification) are important to some feminist film theorists in terms of defining spectatorship from the psychoanalytical viewpoint. British feminist film theorist Laura Mulvey, is famous for her work and is credited with coining the term ‘male gaze’. [23]:28 She asserts: "In their traditional exhibitionist role women are simultaneously looked at and displayed, with their appearance coded for strong visual and erotic impact so that they can be said to connote to-be-looked-at-ness,"[23]:28 and as a result contends that in film a woman is the "bearer of meaning, not maker of meaning. But from this period onwards, it actually became more concerned with women's agency and desires, accommodating many new areas of thought and experience in the process. [25], Claire Johnston put forth the idea that women's cinema can function as "counter cinema." 4 – 1960-1980: New Wave, How to Analyse Movies #8: Putting It Into Practice, How to Analyse Movies #7: Iconography & Realisticness, How to Analyse Movies #5: Lighting, Sound & Score, MPAA, Studios Fund 12-Step Programs For Women Directors (PARODY), Weinstein Scandal Should Affect The Outcome Of The EEOC Hollywood Probe (THR Guest Column), The EEOC Gender Probe: I Don’t Regret Starting the Fight, Women Directors & The Farce of Networking Programs, TEENAGE BOUNTY HUNTERS: A Delightful First Season Shot Down by Netflix, HISTORY OF SWEAR WORDS: Not Your Typical History Lesson, RUPAUL’S DRAG RACE S13E2 “Condragulations”: You’re A Winner, Baby! Feminist scholars began taking cues from the new theories arising from these movements to analyzing film. Its aim is to adequately represent female subjectivity and female desire on the silver screen. [28], Coming from a black feminist perspective, American scholar, Bell Hooks, put forth the notion of the “oppositional gaze,” encouraging black women not to accept stereotypical representations in film, but rather actively critique them. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Introduction. [29] Firstly, these movies have a huge difference in the male/female character ratio, instantly making it an unrepresentative movie as it doesn’t depict 50% of its audience. The inclusion of feminist essays by philosophers in two anthologies on film in the mid‐1990s, together … "And The Mirror Cracked: Feminist Cinema and Film Theory. Feminism has altered predominant perspectives in a wide range of areas within Western society, ranging from culture to law. Unlock access to all of Film Inquiry`s great articles. It was not until the dawning of the era of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in the 1920s that this age-old supposition was administered in the academic work in the realm of motion pictures genre. View Feminist film theory.pdf from ENG 302 at University of the Fraser Valley. While Lola Young argues that filmmakers of all races fail to break away from the use to tired stereotypes when depicting black women. Initial attempts in the United States in the early 1970s were generally based on sociological theory and focused on the function of women characters in … All in all, Feminist Film Theory, Queer Theory, and many other branches of film theory were solidified during this era. Feminist film theory mostly began in two places. In addressing the heterosexual female spectator, she revised her stance to argue that women can take two possible roles in relation to film: a masochistic identification with the female object of desire that is ultimately self-defeating, or a transgender identification with men as the active viewers of the text. Vie w project Anneke Smelik Radboud Univ ersity 119 … Join a community of like-minded readers who are passionate about cinema - get access to our private members Network, give back to independent filmmakers, and more. Don’t feel like reading and would prefer to listen, instead? It also examined how the process of cinematic production affects how women are represented and reinforces sexism. Feminist Film Theory first came to light in the 1960s and ’70s. This unoriginal and predictable character archetype did not stop at the first few films either, as Bay continued to cast limited women in his films, and all the women included in the franchise are deemed stereotypically attractive, as their careers in acting are secondary to their modelling careers. Why do we still see the same roles for women in film and television regurgitated over and over again? Some theorists have noted that in advertising, objectification and sexualised portrayals of the female body can be found even in situations where sex or representations of sex have nothing to do with the product being advertised. “The Diana Ross star vehicle Mahogany (directed by Berry Gordy, 1975) immediately suggests a … Feminist Film Theory: A Reader edited by Sue Thornham. With the advancements in film throughout the years feminist film theory has developed and changed to analyse the current ways of film and also go … Not only is the Male Gaze theory relevant to cinema, but it also correlates with every-day life. Typical examples of the male gaze include medium close-up shots of women from over a man’s shoulder, shots that pan and fixate on a woman’s body, and scenes that frequently occur which show a man actively observing a passive woman. Conventionally, the representations of media are counter to the. Stanford, CA: Stanford … In order to remedy gender inequality, women and feminists of the 1960s and 1970s fought for … Mulvey states that “the gender power asymmetry is a controlling force in cinema and constructed for the pleasure of the male viewer, which is deeply rooted in patriarchal ideologies and discourses.” This means that the male viewer is the target audience, therefore their needs are met first and that this problem stems from an old fashioned, male-driven society. Psychoanalytic feminists attempt to explain power relations between men and women by reformulating Sigmund Freud's theories of human emotions, childhood development, and the workings of the subconscious and unconscious. Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or philosophical discourse. People: Carol Clover - Barbara Creed - Vera Dika - Mary Ann Doane - Paula Graham - Molly Haskell - Laura Mulvey - Patricia MacCormack - Tania Modleski - Claire … In 2014, Dodson worked with women to discover their sexual desires through masturbation. The theory focused on is the exploration of feminist theory developed by Mary Wollstonecraft in the 1790’s. Feminist film theory Last updated December 30, 2019. Her theories are influenced by the likes of Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan (by using their ideologies as “political weapons”) whilst also including psychoanalysis and feminism in her works. Rest in Peace, Agnes Varda. 2. Karen Hollinger provides an accessible overview of women’s representation and involvement in film, complemented by analyses of key texts that illustrate major topics in the field. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. For example, model Rosie Huntington-Whiteley plays the role of Sam’s girlfriend in Transformers: Dark of the Moon(2011) and she has a variety of scenes where she walks around with minimal clothing on. Although largely originating in the West, feminism is manifested worldwide and is represented by various institutions committed to activity on behalf of women’s rights and interests. bell hooks argues for example that Mainstream feminist film criticism in no way acknowledges black female spectatorship. [23], Mulvey's argument is likely influenced by the time period in which she was writing. Feminist Film Theory Thesis, synthesis of nanoparticles research paper pdf, dissertation on social comparison, why did industrial revolution began in england essay [6], Other key influences come from Metz's essay The Imaginary Signifier, "Identification, Mirror," where he argues that viewing film is only possible through scopophilia (pleasure from looking, related to voyeurism), which is best exemplified in silent film. Feminist film theory refers to the practice of analyzing media in its treatment of women and other minorities, which tends to inflame tensions within fandom. The first is the perspective of the male character and how he perceives the female character. The theories further analyses the common stereotypes that are depicted in … With this, it’s no doubt that these men have a sense of power over everything, since they are in charge. She argues that in order for women to be equally represented in the workplace, women must be portrayed as men are: as lacking sexual objectification. Typi… A Discussion With Tomisin Adepeju, Anthony Vander, Kashif Boothe, Duaine Carma Roberts Hosted By Levi Eddie Aluede, “I Started To Realize That Our Social Media Culture Hadn’t Been Explored Much in a Scripted Narrative” Interview with Mike Heslin, Star and Director of THE INFLUENCERS, “Liberals Have To Tell A Better Story” Interview With Daniel Lombroso, Director Of WHITE NOISE, “Working With A Script Is More Of A Craft” Interview with Colin Mochrie, Star of BOYS VS. Feminist film theory has emerged in the past 20 years to become a large and flourishing field. Although it often gets reduced to key theoretical—primarily psychoanalytic—analyses of spectatorship from the 1970s and 1980s, it has always been and continues to be a dynamic area with many objects of focus and diverse methodological practices. I don’t think this is a bad thing – I do it too. This included how passive or active they were, and the amount of screen time they were given. Initial attempts in the United States in the early 1970s were generally based on sociological theory and focused on the function of women characters in … [7] Also, according to Cynthia A. Freeland in "Feminist Frameworks for Horror Films," feminist studies of horror films have focused on psychodynamics where the chief interest is "on viewers' motives and interests in watching horror films". She has written, directed and produced a short titled In Bloom and has a credit in the BAFTA nominated film The Selfish Giant. In 1973 (published 1975) she wrote an essay ‘ Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema ,’ one the first major essays to shift film theory towards a psychoanalytic framework. 5 – 1980: New Wave, Cinema City, Jackie Chan & John Woo, The History of Hong Kong Action Cinema Pt. [5], In 1976 the journal Camera Obscura was published by beginning grad students Janet Bergstrom, Sandy Flitterman, Elisabeth Lyon, and Constance Penley to talk about how women where in films but they were excluded in the development of those films or erased from the process. Research traditions include socio … Feminist film theory. [4], Mulvey proposes in her notes to the Criterion Collection DVD of Michael Powell's controversial film, Peeping Tom (a film about a homicidal voyeur who films the deaths of his victims), that the cinema spectator's own voyeurism is made shockingly obvious and even more shockingly, the spectator identifies with the perverted protagonist. Prior to Mulvey, film theorists such as Jean-Louis Baudry and Christian Metz used psychoanalytic ideas in their theoretical accounts of cinema. Unfortunately, because Disney know people will pay to see this predictable and outdated narrative, they retell the same story over and over for profit, and with the company being worth a total of 74.9 billion US dollars, why would they stop? Rich goes on to say that because of this feminist theory needs to focus on how film by women are being received. The “oppositional gaze” is a response to Mulvey's visual pleasure and states that just as women do not identify with female characters that are not "real," women of color should respond similarly to the one denominational caricatures of black women. Rachael is also a poet, published short story author and is currently working with Rollem Productions on a new concept for a television show. They know films have the male gaze and that the male gaze is bad. It aims to understand the nature of gender inequality.It examines women's and men's social roles, experiences, interests, chores, and feminist politics in a variety of fields, such as anthropology and sociology, communication, media studies, psychoanalysis, home economics, literature, education, and … The Auteur theory argues that a film is a reflection of the director’s artistic vision; so, a movie directed by a given filmmaker will have recognizable, recurring themes and visual queues that inform the audience who the director is (think a Hitchcock or Tarantino film) and shows a consistent artistic … Uninvited: Classical Hollywood Cinema and Lesbian Representability by Patricia White. Weinstein Feminist Theory 1494 Words | 6 Pages. One reason for this is simply that the movie companies producing these films are male-dominated, as cinema is predominantly a male-run industry, and just like when Mulvey originally wrote this critical analysis of film, producers are still churning out the same work that has proved to be successful in the past with audiences as they invest to make profit. History. This can be applied to anything. Budd Boetticher summarizes the view: Laura Mulvey expands on this conception to argue that in cinema, women are typically depicted in a passive role that provides visual pleasure through scopophilia,[23]:30 and identification with the on-screen male actor. Feminist Cinema and Film Theor y. Dodson expressed that the previous waves of feminist were banal and anti-sexual, which is why she has chosen to look at a new stance of feminism, fourth wave feminism. 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[2], In contrast, film theoreticians in England concerned themselves with critical theory, psychoanalysis, semiotics, and Marxism. Initially in the United States in the early 1970s feminist film theory was generally based on sociological theory and focused on the function of female characters in film narratives or genres. However, Rosen and Haskell argue that these images are still mediated by the same factors as traditional film, such as the "moving camera, composition, editing, lighting, and all varieties of sound." As technologies have progressed, contemporary film theory now looks at where and how we encounter … Overall, it is clear that Mulvey‘s theory can be applied to a vast amount of films, for example Spring Breakers(2012), the Lara Croftmovies (2001-2003), The Avengers(2012) and some less obvious movies, such as Aladdin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937). Although Mulvey‘s theory has helped identify issues with gender in film, why do we still have the same issues decades later? Jasmine, the Disney princess in Aladdin for example, features a small, tight crop top revealing her chest and stomach, and her waist is almost the same width as her neck, therefore enforcing unrealistic goals for what little girls want to look and aspire to be like. Feminists have many approaches to cinema analysis, regarding the film elements analyzed and their theoretical underpinnings. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999, 270 pp., $39.95 hardcover, $17.95 paper. They believe that conscious calculation cannot fully explain the production and reproduction of patriarchy. [20][21] Jane Gaines's Women's Film Pioneer Project (WFPP), a database of women who worked in the silent-era film industry, has been cited as a major achievement in recognizing pioneering women in the field of silent and non-silent film by scholars such as Rachel Schaff. This video provides an essential overview for A-Level Sociology students of the theory of Feminism. Feminist Film Studies is a readable, yet comprehensive textbook for introductory classes in feminist film theory and criticism. "Visual Pleasure" is one of the first major essays that helped shift the orientation of film theory towards a psychoanalytic framework. Being one of the most notable film theorists in the world, her ideas and clear proof of misogyny in film opened up the eyes of many, and in 1975, something that people simply accepted was finally questioned. LIFE IS EASY (LIE) Season One: Queer Body Swap Comedy Explores Real Issues, Silence & Oppression: A Cheryl Dunye Retrospective. Feminist Film Theory first came to light in the 1960s and ’70s. As the first major developments in feminist film theory happened in Britain … The inference is that she includes female spectators in that, identifying with the male observer rather than the female object of the gaze. One scene in the film, a man is found dissecting the iris of a young woman’s eye, which infers this idea of female sight not being central, and that men are not only the audience, but also in control of the action, the camera, the direction, the writing, et cetera, therefore completely running the show, dominating the entirety of the narrative and how it is depicted. During its heyday in the 1970s and 1980s a poststructuralist perspective domineered the approach to cinema, claiming that cinema is more than just a reflection of social relations in that it actively constructs meanings of … The development of feminist film theory was influenced by second wave feminism and the development of women's studies in the 1960s and '70s. Whilst the Male Gaze can be applied to many obvious films such as Transformers, there are some films that people might not even consider as sexist and misogynistic, such as the movies that feature everyone’s beloved Disney princesses: Beauty and the Beast,Aladdin, Sleeping Beauty, Cinderella et cetera. A key idea of feminist film theory, the concept of the male gaze was introduced by scholar and filmmaker Laura Mulvey in her now famous 1975 essay, Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. “Introduction: Recent Approaches to Film Feminisms.”, Johnston, Claire. Some even … Choose from 500 different sets of feminist film theory flashcards on Quizlet. [18], Recently, scholars have expanded their work to include analysis of television and digital media. Audiences are forced to view women from the point of view of a heterosexual male, even if they are heterosexual women or homosexual men. [3], British feminist film theorist, Laura Mulvey, best known for her essay, "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema", written in 1973 and published in 1975 in the influential British film theory journal, Screen[4] was influenced by the theories of Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan. The Male Gaze suggests that the female viewer must experience the narrative secondarily, by identification with the male. Partially this is because people tend to incorporate the things they like into their own identities. Feminist film theory, such as Marjorie Rosen's Popcorn Venus: Women, Movies, and the American Dream (1973) and Molly Haskell’s From Reverence to Rape: The Treatment of Women in Movies (1974) analyz… So then, feminist film theory becomes a reason to hate and disavow movies if you’re a feminist. Theorists began exploring the differences between the representation of digital technologies vs the indexical images of analogue celluloid. They begin to question their self-worth. It evolved from focusing on fixing gender biased issues to a model of practice that uses gender, social location and strongly stresses the egalitarian model to understand human difficulties. For example, in the first movie, Megan Fox plays Sam Witwicky’s (Shia LaBeouf) love interest, and who can forget that memorable scene where Fox is in a tight, low-cut top bent over a car engine? The development of feminist film theory was influenced by second wave feminism and women's studies in the 1960s and 1970s. The importance of this theme for 1970s feminist film theory is thus acknowledged, while a majority of the articles exemplify the subsequent move towards reception studies dealing with specifically female spectatorship. FISH S1E1: Not Fun. 7 – 2000-Present: Life After the Handover, The History of Hong Kong Action Cinema Pt. Feminist theory emerged from these feminist movements. One film which stands out when considering this theory is Michael Bay‘s Transformers franchise. In 18th-century England Mary Wollstonecraft ’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman became a seminal work of English-language feminist philosophy. [edit] Art history Linda Nochlin[40]and Griselda Pollock[41][42] are prominent art historians writing on contemporary and modern artists and articulating Art history from a feminist … The Male Gaze theory, in a nutshell, is where women in the media are viewed from the eyes of a heterosexual man, and that these women are represented as passive objects of male desire. Its fun to imagine yourself into fictional worlds, and stories can often have deep personal meanings in our … Feminist theory has been foundational to the establishment and development of film studies as a discipline. Additionally, they have begun to explore notions of difference, engaging in dialogue about the differences among women (part of movement away from essentialism in feminist work more generally), the various methodologies and perspectives contained under the umbrella of feminist film theory, and the multiplicity of methods and intended effects that influence the development of films. The Male Gaze theory, in a nutshell, is where women in the media are viewed from the eyes of a heterosexual man, and that these women are represented as passive objects of male desire. Feminist film theoryFeminist view film to be a cultural practiserepresenting myths about women and femininity aswell as men and masculinity. "[23]:28 Mulvey argues that the psychoanalytic theory of Jacques Lacan is the key to understanding how film creates such a space for female sexual objectification and exploitation through the combination of the patriarchal order of society, and 'looking' in itself as a pleasurable act of scopophilia, as "the cinema satisfies a primordial wish for pleasurable looking."[23]:31. The work of the feminist psychoanalyst and philosopher, Julia Kristeva, has influenced feminist theory in general and feminist literary criticism in particular. While popular feminist criticism is not in the business of providing in-depth readings … For Mulvey, it is the presence of the female that defines the patriarchal order of society as well as the male psychology of thought. THE TEST & THE ART OF THINKING: What Does The SAT Really Test? 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What kind of message does this transmit? Second-wave feminism is rooted in Marxist thought and in the women’s liberation movements of the 1960s and 1970s. Thus, the film theories set out to analyze the manner in which a great number of women are portrayed in the various films and how it relates to a broader historical context. They believe that they are giving the public what they want, when that isn’t necessarily true. Partially this is because people tend to incorporate the things they like into their own identities. Audiences are forced to view women from the point of view of a heterosexual male, even if they are heterosexual women or homosexual men. Firstly, the design of the princesses is partially created to satisfy the male eye. Carol Clover, in her popular and influential book, Men, Women, and Chainsaws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film (Princeton University Press, 1992), argues that young male viewers of the Horror Genre (young males being the primary demographic) are quite prepared to identify with the female-in-jeopardy, a key component of the horror narrative, and to identify on an unexpectedly profound level. Jane Gaines's essay "White Privilege and Looking Relations: Race and Gender in Feminist Film Theory" examined the erasure of black women in cinema by white male filmmakers. VDM Verlag Dr. Müller: 2009, 128 p. (German), This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 14:59. Feminist film theory criticizes classical cinema for its stereotyped representation of women. Laura Mulvey is a feminist film theorist from Britain, best known for her essay on Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. The traditional interpretation of this theory is based on the common ideology of feminism within the Communication world. "New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998. [19] Scholars in recent years have also turned their attention towards women in the silent film industry and their erasure from the history of those films and women's bodies and how they are portrayed in the films. Learn more about feminism. [11] Feminism, the belief in social, economic, and political equality of the sexes. Feminist Film Theory 101: Carol J. Clover’s “The Final Girl” Skip to entry content As it’s Halloween this month, it only seems apporiate for this month’s “Feminist Film Theory 101” to focus on Carol J.Clover’s “ Men, Women, and Chain Saws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film .” and the “Final Girl”. [1] Initially in the United States in the early 1970s feminist film theory was generally based on sociological theory and focused on the function of female characters in film narratives or genres. The relationship of feminist film theory to feminist media and cultural studies is outlined, as is the relationship between developments in feminist film theory and feminist film making. The development of feminist film theory was influenced by second wave feminism and the development of women's studies in the 1960s and '70s. She firmly believes that Pirates of the Caribbean should have remained a trilogy and thinks Inglourious Basterds is the greatest movie ever made. For example, the films Spy(2015) and The Hunger Gamesfranchise (2012-present) allow audiences to have a refreshing look at women in strong and powerful positions without a man by their side, thus enforcing the important message that women do not have to be put in a box and objectified, they can play a variety of different, versatile roles and they can be considered through the eyes of society in a way that doesn’t patronize and sexualise them via the Male Gaze. Feminist theory has made huge leaps from psychotherapy since its beginning over four decades ago. Her theory on how women are portrayed in film and the media is just as prevalent today as it was in 1975 when her text was first published. Raberger, Ursula: New Queer Oz: Feministische Filmtheorie und weibliche Homosexualiät in zwei Filmen von Samantha Lang. [8], Beginning in the early 1980s feminist film theory began to look at film through a more intersectional lens. Laura Mulvey, in response to these and other criticisms, revisited the topic in "Afterthoughts on 'Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema' inspired by Duel in the Sun" (1981). April 2016 DOI: 10.1002/9781118663219.wbegss148 CITATIONS 11 READS 12,390 1 author: Some o f the authors of this public ation are also w orking on these r elated projects: Crafting Wearables: on Wearable Technolog y in Fashion Vie w project Book: And The Mirr or Cracked. 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