Vipariṇāma-dukkha(dukkha as produced by change) - the anxiety or stress of trying to hold onto things that are constantly changing. Much Buddhist doctrine is based on the fact of suffering; its reality, cause, and means of suppression formed the subject of the Buddha’s first sermon (see Four Noble Truths). [15][16][17] Many contemporary teachers, scholars, and translators have used the term "unsatisfactoriness" to emphasize the subtlest aspects of dukkha. Photo by Maksym Kaharlytskyi on Unsplash. It is the first of the Four Noble Truths and it is one of the three marks of existence. Unsatisfactoriness (Dalai Lama, Bhikkhu Bodhi, Rupert Gethin, Dissatisfaction (Pema Chodron, Chogyam Trunpa), This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 00:46. The endless cycle of birth, rebirth, and redeath, is samsara. [1][2][3][4][5][6] It refers to the fundamental unsatisfactoriness and painfulness of mundane life. One of the key features of Buddhism is its description of “suffering” (dukkha). Later translators have emphasized that "suffering" is too limited a translation for the term duḥkha, and have preferred to either leave the term untranslated or to clarify that translation with terms such as anxiety, distress, frustration, unease, unsatisfactoriness, etc. These things generally bring the same "pain and sorrow" that we think of as "pain and sorrow" (and they write country songs about). What Buddhism does say is that Life, by its nature, is difficult, flawed, and imperfect. "[11], The word is commonly explained as a derivation from Aryan terminology for an axle hole, referring to an axle hole which is not in the center and leads to a bumpy, uncomfortable ride. ", "Whoever wants to live well (eudaimonia) must consider these three questions: First, how are pragmata (ethical matters, affairs, topics) by nature? Their persuasion is the fear of death. [3][10] It is opposed to the word sukha, meaning "happiness," "comfort" or "ease. The most important point here is that duḥ + stha literally means 'dis-/ bad- + stand-’, that is, 'badly standing, unsteady' and is therefore virtually identical to the literal meaning of Greek astathmēta, from a- + sta- 'not- + stand', both evidently meaning 'unstable'. Dukkha is a word from the Pali language, and is usually translated into English as suffering. Essential to this is the idea that the Buddha’s teachings should not become an object of attachment. Duḥkha (/ˈduːkə/; Sanskrit:दुःख; Pāli: dukkha) is an important concept in Hinduism and Buddhism, commonly translated as "suffering", "unhappiness", "pain", "unsatisfactoriness" or "stress". The Meaning of Dukkha. Diogenes Laërtius' biography of Pyrrho[43] reports that Pyrrho based his philosophy on what he learned there: ...he even went as far as the Gymnosophists, in India, and the Magi. Investigation of Dhamma for full liberation also must include, in addition to the Four Noble Truths, a study of the Three Universal Characteristics or Signata of existence, (ti-lakkhana): anicca — impermanence, dukkha — suffering, and anatta — essencelessness. [note 7] However, the two religions widely differ in the nature of that understanding. However, according to Monier Monier-Williams, the actual roots of the Pali term dukkha appear to be Sanskrit दुस्- (dus-, "bad") + स्था (stha, "to stand"). The Hindi Language, duhkha generally means "difficult to do" or "to have hardship in doing" as it is inflexible. Duhkha, in particular, specifies the sense of disappointing feelings that come from the gulf between a person's perception and desires and real facts of their experience. [42] Pyrrho accompanied Alexander the Great on his Indian campaign, spending about 18 months in Taxila studying Indian philosophy. The meaning of Dukkha is difficult to understand. 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